Race, Incarceration, and American Values
Title Race, Incarceration, and American Values PDF eBook
Author Glenn C. Loury
Publisher MIT Press
Pages 96
Release 2008-08-22
Genre Political Science
ISBN 0262260948

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Why stigmatizing and confining a large segment of our population should be unacceptable to all Americans. The United States, home to five percent of the world's population, now houses twenty-five percent of the world's prison inmates. Our incarceration rate—at 714 per 100,000 residents and rising—is almost forty percent greater than our nearest competitors (the Bahamas, Belarus, and Russia). More pointedly, it is 6.2 times the Canadian rate and 12.3 times the rate in Japan. Economist Glenn Loury argues that this extraordinary mass incarceration is not a response to rising crime rates or a proud success of social policy. Instead, it is the product of a generation-old collective decision to become a more punitive society. He connects this policy to our history of racial oppression, showing that the punitive turn in American politics and culture emerged in the post-civil rights years and has today become the main vehicle for the reproduction of racial hierarchies. Whatever the explanation, Loury argues, the uncontroversial fact is that changes in our criminal justice system since the 1970s have created a nether class of Americans—vastly disproportionately black and brown—with severely restricted rights and life chances. Moreover, conservatives and liberals agree that the growth in our prison population has long passed the point of diminishing returns. Stigmatizing and confining of a large segment of our population should be unacceptable to Americans. Loury's call to action makes all of us now responsible for ensuring that the policy changes.



Race and Afro-Brazilian Agency in Brazil
Title Race and Afro-Brazilian Agency in Brazil PDF eBook
Author Tshombe Miles
Publisher Routledge
Pages 202
Release 2019-07-25
Genre Social Science
ISBN 0429884079

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This book provides an insight into the Afro-Brazilian experience of racism in Brazil from the 19th Century to the present day, exploring people of African Ancestry’s responses to racism in the context of a society where racism was present in practice, though rarely explicit in law. Race and Afro-Brazilian Agency in Brazil examines the variety of strategies, from conservative to radical, that people of African ancestry have used to combat racism throughout the diaspora in Brazil. In studying the legacy of color-blind racism in Brazil, in contrast to racially motivated policies extant in the US and South Africa during the twentieth century, the book uncovers various approaches practiced by Afro-Brazilians throughout the country since the abolition of slavery towards racism, unique to the Brazilian experience. Studying racism in Brazil from the latter part of the nineteenth century to the present day, the book examines areas such as art and culture, politics, and tradition. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of Brazilian history, diaspora studies, race/ethnicity, and Luso-Brazilian studies.



Getting Real About Race
Title Getting Real About Race PDF eBook
Author Stephanie M. McClure
Publisher SAGE Publications
Pages 404
Release 2021-11-15
Genre Social Science
ISBN 1544354894

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Getting Real About Race is an edited collection of short essays that address the most common stereotypes and misconceptions about race held by students, and by many in the United States, in general. Key Features Each essay concludes with suggested sources including videos, websites, books, and/or articles that instructors can choose to assign as additional readings on a topic. Essays also end with questions for discussion that allow students to move from the “what” (knowledge) to the “so what” (implications) of race in their own lives. In this spirit, the authors include suggested “Reaching Across the Color Line” activities at the end of each essay, allowing students to apply their new knowledge on the topic in a unique or creative way. Current topics students want to discuss are brought up through the text, making it easier for the instructor to deal with these topics in an open classroom environment.



When Brute Force Fails
Title When Brute Force Fails PDF eBook
Author Mark A. R. Kleiman
Publisher Princeton University Press
Pages 256
Release 2009-08-17
Genre Political Science
ISBN 9781400831265

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Since the crime explosion of the 1960s, the prison population in the United States has multiplied fivefold, to one prisoner for every hundred adults--a rate unprecedented in American history and unmatched anywhere in the world. Even as the prisoner head count continues to rise, crime has stopped falling, and poor people and minorities still bear the brunt of both crime and punishment. When Brute Force Fails explains how we got into the current trap and how we can get out of it: to cut both crime and the prison population in half within a decade. Mark Kleiman demonstrates that simply locking up more people for lengthier terms is no longer a workable crime-control strategy. But, says Kleiman, there has been a revolution--largely unnoticed by the press--in controlling crime by means other than brute-force incarceration: substituting swiftness and certainty of punishment for randomized severity, concentrating enforcement resources rather than dispersing them, communicating specific threats of punishment to specific offenders, and enforcing probation and parole conditions to make community corrections a genuine alternative to incarceration. As Kleiman shows, "zero tolerance" is nonsense: there are always more offenses than there is punishment capacity. But, it is possible--and essential--to create focused zero tolerance, by clearly specifying the rules and then delivering the promised sanctions every time the rules are broken. Brute-force crime control has been a costly mistake, both socially and financially. Now that we know how to do better, it would be immoral not to put that knowledge to work.



Punishment in Popular Culture
Title Punishment in Popular Culture PDF eBook
Author Austin Sarat
Publisher NYU Press
Pages 320
Release 2015-06-05
Genre Law
ISBN 1479864218

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The way a society punishes demonstrates its commitment to standards of judgment and justice, its distinctive views of blame and responsibility, and its particular way of responding to evil. Punishment in Popular Culture examines the cultural presuppositions that undergird America’s distinctive approach to punishment and analyzes punishment as a set of images, a spectacle of condemnation. It recognizes that the semiotics of punishment is all around us, not just in the architecture of the prison, or the speech made by a judge as she sends someone to the penal colony, but in both “high” and “popular” culture iconography, in novels, television, and film. This book brings together distinguished scholars of punishment and experts in media studies in an unusual juxtaposition of disciplines and perspectives. Americans continue to lock up more people for longer periods of time than most other nations, to use the death penalty, and to racialize punishment in remarkable ways. How are these facts of American penal life reflected in the portraits of punishment that Americans regularly encounter on television and in film? What are the conventions of genre which help to familiarize those portraits and connect them to broader political and cultural themes? Do television and film help to undermine punishment's moral claims? And how are developments in the boarder political economy reflected in the ways punishment appears in mass culture? Finally, how are images of punishment received by their audiences? It is to these questions that Punishment in Popular Culture is addressed.



Lurching Toward Happiness in America
Title Lurching Toward Happiness in America PDF eBook
Author Claude S. Fischer
Publisher MIT Press
Pages 148
Release 2014-10-31
Genre Social Science
ISBN 0262028247

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Amid confusing and alarmist media claims about our changing culture, Claude Fischer sets the record straight on social trends in America. The promise of America has long been conceived as the promise of happiness. Being American is all about the opportunity to pursue one's own bliss. But what is the good life, and are we getting closer to its attainment? In the cacophony of competing conceptions of the good, technological interventions that claim to help us achieve it, and rancorous debate over government's role in securing it for us, every step toward happiness seems to come with at least one step back. In Lurching toward Happiness in America, acclaimed sociologist Claude Fischer explores the data, the myths, and history to understand how far America has come in delivering on its promise. Are Americans getting lonelier? Is the gender revolution over? Does income shape the way Americans see their life prospects? In the end, Fischer paints a broad picture of what Americans say they want. And, as he considers how close they are to achieving that goal, he also suggests what might finally get them there.



What We Know About Climate Change, second edition
Title What We Know About Climate Change, second edition PDF eBook
Author Kerry Emanuel
Publisher MIT Press
Pages 114
Release 2012-10-26
Genre Science
ISBN 0262305143

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A renowned climatologist—and political conservative—assesses current scientific understanding of climate change and sounds a call to action. The vast majority of scientists agree that human activity has significantly increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere—most dramatically since the 1970s. Yet global warming skeptics and ill-informed elected officials continue to dismiss this broad scientific consensus. In this new edition of his authoritative book, MIT atmospheric scientist Kerry Emanuel—a political conservative—outlines the basic science of global warming and how the current consensus has emerged. He also covers two major developments that have occurred since the first edition: the most recent round of updated projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate simulations, and the so-called “climategate” incident that heralded the subsequent collapse of popular and political support in the United States for dealing with climate change.